Tuesday, February 27, 2007

Masha Allen Congressional Transcripts Available

The transcripts of the congressional testimony in the Masha Allen case are now available in the public record.

For those who don't know, Masha Allen is a teenager who was adopted at the age of 5 from Russia into the US by a single male pedophile. Masha was sexually abused for five years and also became the subject of child pornography.

For many years law enforcement officers saw her photos circulate on the internet (they watched her grow up in these photos but were unable to locate her to rescue her).

At one point they removed her from one of the photos (where she appeared
to be in a hotel room ) and posted the photo on the internet hoping that someone could identity the place. The place was identified as Disney World and from then on the little girl became known as the "Disney World Girl."

The break in the case came when a law enforcement officer, posing as a pornographer, engaged a child pornographer on the internet. Through this contact, law enforcement officers were able to trace a location for what they thought was just another pornographer. However, when FBI agents arrived to arrest him, they were astonished to find not just the pornographer, but also the child they had sought for so long--Disney World Girl--Masha. They were also astonished to find that Masha had been internationally adopted by this pedophile through normal, legal adoption channels.

Masha, who was subsequently readopted by another family and who is now a teenager, has been bravely speaking out for several years now.

Masha's case has been before US Congressal committess on at least two separate ocassions. The first time, Masha herself testified against child pornography as a child victim. In the process of these hearings, the part that the negligent adoption industry played in her victimization was revealed. The committee was so disturbed about the way that Masha fell into the hands of a pedophile--through the normal international process--that they determined to hold a separate hearing on just that issue.

Subsequently, the US Congressional committee brought everyone involved in Masha's adoption to a committee hearing--a hearing to specifically determine just how this little girl could have been placed with a single male pedophile, to determine why the post placement visits (and reports) that Russia requires for all adoptions, never happened (well, OK, someone called Mancuso on the telephone and based on that phone call a report was filed assuring theRussian government that Masha was in a "warm and loving" home...ugh...), and finally to determine if Masha's adoption placement with a pedophile was simply a freak accident or whether something was lacking (and could be fixed) in the adoption process and procedures themselves.

The transcripts of the hearing represent the testimony, the questioning and the answers of those in the adoption industry that were involved in Masha's adoption, as well as the testimony of those who could shed light on what went wrong and what could be done to change the system to safeguard adoptive children.

They make for pretty damning reading in regard to the way the adoption industry works. (Or should I say fails to work...to protect children).

You can access the transcripts of the Congressional testimony on these sites:

1) The first site takes a LONG time to load as it is a pdf of 191pages. It includes a LOT of supplementary documents:


2)The second site loads much quicker. It isn't as well formatted, however, and doesn't contain any supplementary material:


Read and be disturbed.

But most of all read and be educated as to the "quality" and "safeguards" of current adoption practice.

And think about the awful, five year long nightmare that one little girl lived as a direct consequence of poor, sloppy adoption practice.

Oh, and BTW, because there is really no effective way to completely remove any particular child porn image from distribution once it has multiplied on the internet, Masha's child porn photos are still out there, circulating in the internet underworld of pedophiles. According to one law enforcement officer, they find at least one photo of Masha among the child porn photos in about half of the child porn arrests.

The legacy of poor adoption practice is something that will haunt Masha one way or another for the rest of her life.


Sunday, February 25, 2007

Corruption Item 19: Legislative & Executive Helps

19) Work for Legislative and Executive Remedies

--Pool your resources with organizations like Ethica http://www.ethicanet.org to do things like write and lobby for badly needed legislation and executive remedies for problems that allow child trafficking and bad adoption practice to flourish.

--Analyse, discuss,and comment on proposed legislation.

Corruption Item 18: Network & Use Your Talents

18) Pool your resources and use your unique talents

--Support organizations like Ethica with your donations and your time and talents.

--Attempt to interest already existing organizations in working on aspects of adoption corruption. (National Center for Missing &Exploited Children, women's groups, human rights groups, thoseagainst globalization, etc. as you see fit)

--Use any contacts you may have with those in the media who can put the spotlight on unethical practices.

--Befriend those pushing for adoption reform in the domestic arena. Many issues overlap, but the two camps often operate independently.

--Use whatever talents you have, your profession or job skills, and your unique position in ways that will further the cause of adoption ethics and reform. Be creative.

--Network. Join forces with others.

Corruption Item 17: Tell the Bad Stories

17) Tell the bad stories.

--If you have you have been a victim of adoption fraud or corruption, don't be silent. Tell your story.

--If those further along on the path had told you, you might have been spared the bad experience. How can you be silent and know that your silence will cause other AP's and PAP's to fail to be warned and likewise be hurt? How can you be silent knowing that your silence will cause other children and first families to be hurt?

--Change will come ONLY if we care enough to share. Keeping bad deeds secret only causes more people to suffer and delays needed reforms.

--Allow your own story to become a part of the public record in a way that allows corruption to be documented.

--Encourage others to tell their stories and encourage them to allow their stories to be documented in the public record.

--DO file complaints with officials if you have been a victim ofadoption fraud or corruption. Persist when such complaints appear todisappear into nothingness and you are not even given the minimal courtesy of the acknowledgement of their receipt.

--Think about what your case would be if the word "adoption" were not attached to it to launder the crimes. Personally accord it the same appropriate level of seriousness.

--Think about the relative importance of your case if everyone involved were white home-grown, middle class compatriots. Appropriately accord it the same level of seriousness.

--"You just need to be a flea against injustice. Enough committed fleas biting strategically can make even the biggest dog uncomfortable and transform even the biggest nation."
-Marian Wright Edelman.

Be a flea biting.

--Do something. All it takes for injustice to flourish is for good people to sit by and do nothing.

Corruption Item 16: Educate PAP's

16) Speak to PAP's formally and informally about finding ethical agencies.

--David K's: http://www.adoptionagencychecklist.com/ is a good placeto start

--Encourage PAP's to join Adoption_Agency_Research: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Adoption_Agency_Research/

--Don't let PAP's wander into danger with their rose-colored glasses on. Do your best to show them a more balanced, more mature view of adoption. Do your best to warn them of the problems in the country from which they intend to adopt. Warn them to avoid countries where corruption problems are rampant or those countries where problems are "coming to a head."

--Commit yourself to PAP education more broadly. Be patient. Remember the goal. Be persist and be kind. Remember yourself when you were a PAP.

Corruption Item 15: Speak Up

15) Speak up.

--Be the voice crying in the wilderness or a flea on the adoption support groups of which you are a member

--Write letters to the editor

--Write articles

--Talk about what you've learned to friends, neighbors, acquaintances, etc. especially those who are contemplating adoption.

Corruption Item 14: Help Mature Adoption Beliefs

14) Work to Mature the Way Adoption is understood in Our Society.

--Much of our inability to believe adoption corruption exists begins with our society's simplistic, AP centered, and mythic understanding of adoption. Adoption is mythically considered an always and absolute good. When adoption is seen in more mature, realistic, and balanced ways, our society will start to realize that adoption, like almost everything else in life, can be used for good or ill (to help or to exploit and harm). Adoption is a good only when used and practiced responsibly with an understanding of what it is and what is it is not; the good that it can be, but also the real inherent losses that it causes.

--As in all things, educating yourself is first. Seek to understand adoption as an elephant surrounded by blind men. Our society believes and acts as if the only valid perspective on adoption comes from the blind man standing in the position of adoptive parent. That blind man is given a megaphone and all others (very valid others who stand around the majority of the elephant) who have different perspectives are ignored, greeted with skepticism, and/or silenced. Learn to see adoption from the perspective of other blindmen-adoptees, birth families, those hurt by adoption, the big picture, the historical perspective, etc.

--Join the online adoption support list called International Adopt Talk (IAT)
and encourage others to join; listen and learn. there. Be willing to change and mature your perspective.

--Read adoptee memoirs, blogs, and stories

--Read books on adoption history and practice

--Read criticisms of intercountry adoption including those that see intercountry adoption as a continuation of neocolonial practices and an outgrowth of the evils of globalism; seek to understand the racial aspects and the first world/third world power inequities of intercountry adoption.

--Read first mother and first family blogs, accounts, and stories.

--Seek out stories that show other sides of adoption

--From all of these form a more realistic understanding of adoption.

--Remember this: It is always easy to recognize the injustices of another time and place; the hard thing is to recognize the injustices of your own time and place. In every time and place where injustice has been condoned/ignored/allowed to thrive by society there has been a worldview and a simplistic uni-blind-man mythology that makes injustice look just, especially for those who benefit from it. It is easy to shift blame, make problems into non-problems, injustices into non-issues, and ignore massive problems. It is harder to take a stand against the zeitgeist and be a flea or a lion biting against injustice. Reform begins with understanding the view from somewhere other than society's single approved blind man. It starts when people begin to recognize that there are other human beings involved---people as human as themselves. People who have the same emotions, the same hopes, and the same dreams--and who feel pain in the same way and for the same reasons as they themselves--when we start to care about the way the world looks from the perspective of those other equally human beings. Not just the way WE think the world looks from their perspective (in our minds), but the way it IS from their experience and perspective. When we GIVE THEM VOICE and LISTEN TO THEM.

--Whenever you see adoption being portrayed in a simplistic, AP centered, uni-perspective, mythic sort of way, speak up and share a different perspective.

Corruption Item 13: Don't Undermine Investigations

13) During Adoption Crises, Avoid the Temptation to Undermine and Work Against Investigations, Enforcement, and Reforms.

-- When the governments involved become convinced that there are illegal practices and slow or stop adoptions from a country, resist the temptation to push the governments to keep countries open to adoption.

--Instead, hold PAP's hands and offer support that makes it clear that governments must be allowed to do what is necessary to stop corruption.

--Get involved in helping safeguard the immediate welfare of children caught up in these scandals.

--Receiving country governments are often forced to turn a blind eye and disregard blatant problems because AP's push their governments so hard in order to keep the flow of children going. In turn, these governments put pressure on foreign governments to keep children flowing freely. As a result, clean-ups are rarely followed through on. Everything is swept under the rug and the children keep coming no matter what.

--Governments have learned from past experience not to investigate adoption illegalities except in extreme cases where the embarrassment to not investigate exceeds the grumbling of the AP's when they do investigate—which means hardly anything is investigated except incases where AP's lose money. This means that AP's always ensure that it is open season for illegalities in adoption.

Corruption Item 12: Read International Documents

12) Educate yourself on the International Documents that are applicable to International Adoption:

--"The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)"

--"The Convention on the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol (Sale of Children)"

--"Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption"

--Human Rights documents, including the "Protocol to Prevent, Suppress,and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children,Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime."

--Educate others in the adoption community and in the general communityabout what these documents say about human rights and adoption, including the fact that they state a hierarchy of care for children.

--Lobby for laws and enforcement that takes these human rights documents seriously.

Corrupton Item 11: Compare Adoption Practices

11) Research the adoption practices of other receiving countries as away of understanding your own country's practices.

--In what ways do other receiving countries "do it better" or not as well?

Corruption Item 10: Know Your Country's Laws

10) Educate yourself on the adoption related laws and regulations of your own country.

--As you educate yourself, take note of the way that the federal, the state (or regional) and the local laws interact.

--Note where your own country's laws are weak; discuss these weaknesses with other AP's. Lobby your government to strengthen these weaknesses, and energize other AP's to care. Just make sure you understand the broader repercussions of anything you push for before you push.

--When you see your government taking a stand for higher ethical standards in adoption, be sure to praise those officials for their principled stand; when your government fails to take a stand, make sure they know you aren't pleased. Above all make it clear to your government that adoptive parents and adoptees CARE about ethics in adoption—that the ends do NOT justify the means, that AP's desire to parent does not trump the human rights of others.

--Seek to understand how the laws of your country intersect with the laws of the receiving countries you have decided to monitor.

Corruption Item 9: Help Fight Root Causes

9) Find ways to make a difference in terms of the root causes of the "need" for adoption.

--Find ways to address the contextual root causes of relinquishment, abandonment, and the questionable or illegal sourcing of children in these countries. This could be through sponsoring a family, sponsoring a child, supporting education, supporting an organization that offers education, supporting an organization that empowers local women, or whatever... It could be through urging your government or charities to address issues that you've become aware of; it could be through education of others as to the complexities of issues within countries, or many other things--whatever.

--Understand the domestic adoption laws of the sending country and the hindrances to domestic adoption placement within the sending country.

--Determine how international adoption affects domestic adoption practices within the sending country. Do large amounts of foreign money pumped into the system from abroad create incentives to send children abroad rather than place them domestically?

--Are there other viable options for allowing relinquished/abandoned children to remain in-country and get the training/education they need for adult life? How should the various options for children be weighed in decision making? Are children always better off with a family (as the adoption industry claims) even if being with that family means changing languages, changing cultures, changing countries, changing heritage groups, changing educational expectations, and being interracially adopted? If you think these other options have merit,support viable options for helping children already separated from their familyof origin, especially older children, remain in their country of birth.

--Realistically speaking, international adoption touches only a tiny fraction of the children who have been separated (for whatever reason) from their family of origin. It will never be a solution for all children or even a sizeable portion of the children in any given country. Supporting other in-country solutions for both children who are vulnerable to separation from families of origin (family preservation/prevention strategies) and who have already been separated from their families of origin (solutions other than IA) makes compassionate humanitarian sense.

Corruption Item 8: Track Agency Practices

8) Track current agency practice to understand the bigger picture.

--Join online groups like Adoption_Agency_Research and learn and participate. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Adoption_Agency_Research/
(The Adoption AgencyResearch Group was formed to help prospective adoptive parents--PAPs-- in their research and selection of an international adoption agency. If you have already completed an adoption, please share your experience with us! This group is for CONSUMERS ONLY -- EMPLOYEES OR AFFILIATES OF ADOPTION AGENCIES are NOT WELCOME in this Group!)

--Contribute whatever you can according to your own experiences.

--The best way to continue to support bad agency practice is to keep your mouth shut about the corruption, fraud, and bad adoption practices that you yourself experienced. The best way to support better agency practice is to SHARE YOUR BAD EXPERIENCES with others. Silence is the best friend of corruption, fraud,and bad adoption practice.

--Membership in groups like AAR is useful not just in terms of learning about agencies, but in learning about the realities of current adoption practice.

--Note the lacks and loopholes in adoption law and enforcement as you see how real life adoption practice plays out in the lives of real people.

--Note who the especially problematic actors are and how they freely they appear, disappear, and then reappear in one agency and then another.

--Note also how ineffective the laws, enforcement, and oversight are as you watch the very, very few agencies and actors who are finally disciplined by government or voluntary bodies simply show up in another jurisdiction or another agency reincarnation to continue freely to do whatever they do.

--Note also the lack of real recourse that adoptive parents have with agencies.What would make this situation better?

--Now imagine this lack of laws, lack of enforcement, and lack of recourse and power multiplied a hundredfold in the case of impoverished first families dealing with corrupt sending country operatives and governments. What would make this situation better?

Corruption Item 7: Hold Agencies Accountable

7) Encourage agencies to carefully vet and then hold their own foreign partners responsible for their actions.

--Demand accounting from agencies in terms of the practices of those with whom they partner. Agencies are paid to "vet" their overseas "partners" and orphanages. Orphanages, facilitators, lawyers, and operatives that routinely lie to adoptive parents and receiving country agencies ought to be held accountable for those lies (for example, seriously and purposefully under-aging older children is a chronic problem in some countries).

--Agencies ought to be using good judgment in terms of choosing their foreign partners. They should not be partnering with overseas partners who have been seriously or repeatedly implicated for child trafficking, paperwork falsification, or other adoption related crimes. They should certainly not be partnering with those that have been found guilty of such crimes. Hold agencies accountable for their actions and their partnerships. Don't accept weak arguments for the status quo when the status quo isn't good enough. Placing children is a serious responsibility that should be taken seriouslyif families and children are to be safeguarded from trafficking and fraud.

--An agency should not be giving weak excuses for lack of information about children. There are few countries where the kind of money being poured into foreign adoption can't buy decent and reliable medical evaluations or where AP's can't purchase reliable evaluations. If medical reports from an orphanage are routinely wrong, agencies need to hold their foreign partners responsible and demand accuracy as a condition an of ongoing professional relationship. Agencies are allowed to get away with too much in this regard.

--Agencies need to hold foreign partners responsible for the way inwhich children come into care at the orphanage. It is their business to know if orphanages use scouts and monetary incentives to procure children. And it is their responsibility to REFUSE to partner with foreign partners that employ these methods. If it is truly that HARDto find adoptable children in a given country, then AP's ought to bequestioning whether IA should really be being practiced there.

--Agencies need to hold foreign partners responsible in regard to the accuracy of relinquishment documents and the child's identity. Agencies need to make sure that the foreign partner understands that the papers that connect the child to his original parents will someday be valuable to the adoptee and that the orphanage/facilitator/lawyer has the responsibility to maintain truthful and accurate records to this end. This is simply in accord with basic human rights. No human being's identity should be scrambled. No human being's birth identity should be disrespected as so unimportant that it shouldn't bother to be preserved. Children ARE human beings not commodities.

Corruption Item 6: Hold Non-Profits Accountable

6) Hold non-profit adoption agencies accountable for how donations and money for "humanitarian projects" are spent. Demand an accounting.

--Research sending country non-profit agencies' financial statements on-line and understand where the money from fees and donations goes. Ask about anything that doesn't make sense.http://www.guidestar.org/

--"Donations" and money for "humanitarian projects" can represent sizeable amounts of money, especially after they are converted into foreign currency and understood in the context of the sending country. This money, when not used as reported can easily become the incentive for corrupt, fraudulant, and illegal adoption practices.(If you want to know how easily such donations are diverted and how no one is currently keeping track, watch the video, "What Really Happened in Cambodia" by US Special Agent Richard Cross: http://cumberland.samford.edu/cumberland_programs.asp?ID=630 ) KNOW WHERE THE MONEY GOES. Hold agencies accountable.

--If agencies claim to have a "humanitarian project," ask for an accounting of how funds are spent within that program. Ask specific questions until you understand how things work and where the money goes. If an agency has a "humanitarian feeding program" what does that mean? Does it mean that they hand out a dozen cupcakes to passersby on a deserted corner once a year or does it mean that theyhave an ongoing commitment to hand out 20 pound bags of vital protein like legumes to 100 impoverished and pre-qualified families on the first day of each month in such and such a village and they've been doing it for 10 years now? Who can verify that this is so? The label "humanitarian project," should not be allowed to be a vague hiding place for the lack of accountability.

--Agencies have legitimate costs in doing business. Everyone understands this and no one should lose sight of that fact. However,agencies, as all businesses, must be held accountable for their handling of money. This is especially true in the international context where foreign exchange rates change large amounts of money into enormous fortunes and where the agency stands in the gap between enormous power and economic divides. Agencies MUST act responsibly.

--Refuse to cooperate with illegal practices. Refuse to accept obviously bogus explanations. Where something looks and smells fishy, it often is. For example, when we are told as AP's that we must give a mandatory "voluntary" donations—come on, it's an oxymoron and yet we as AP's go along with such nonsense. When in doubt, go to the appropriate NGO's or authorities and ask….does this seem a little fishy to you too…?...

Saturday, February 24, 2007

Corruption Item 5: Understand Fees Are Incentive

5) Be aware of the role that foreign fees and foreign/orphanage donations play in incentivizing the corrupt sourcing of childrenfor adoption

--Ask for accountings from agencies for foreign fees and donations.Foreign fees and donations are the grease and incentive for child trafficking. Make sure that agencies account for where the overseas money goes. You can do this whether you're done adopting or are just now adopting.

--Along these lines, find out the foreign exchange rate between your own currency and the sending country's currency. Find out how much your foreign fee represents in terms of local sending country currency. Seek to understand local economics enough to understand the purchasing power/local economic value of this amount. Think about whether this amount of money is reasonable for a "foreign fee"or "donation" or whether it represents undue incentive to attract unethical people or make normally ethical people consider unethical behavior.

--If the foreign fee or orphanage donation seems out-of-line,question the agency about it. If the fee violates applicable laws orprinciples, express your concerns, and ask for an explanation.

--Do not be shy about questioning agencies and authorities about their practices. Where there is honest behavior, questioning should not bring about defensiveness.

--Ask your agency if the orphanages with which they work provide an accounting of how fees and donations are used. (We saw with theGalindo case how easy it was to seemingly simply pocket orphanage donations because there was NO accounting for this money.) Where does the money go? Is the agency reasonably sure that all of the fee/donation is being used as it ought to be used? If so, why?

- If possible, try to understand approximately how much money it takes to run a comparable institution in the sending country. Roughly calculate how much money the orphanage is receiving per year(based on the number of placements times the fee/donation). Look at the facility and the care provided, compare it to others, compare it to the amount of money that's flowing in. Does it look like the money is being spent where you are told it's being spent?

--Network with others and share your concerns; keep in mind that sometimes all it takes to affect positive change is the knowledge that someone is watching and cares and will hold you accountable.

Corruption Item 4: Are Agencies Acting Legally?

4) Keep tabs on whether your agency and the other adoption agencies practicing in the countries you have chosen, are abiding by the rules.

--Network with others and together as AP's "police" the agencies that practice in a country.

--Now that you know the laws of these countries, you can see whether the agencies in question are following these laws. (for example, if the country prohibits orphanage donations and an agency practicing there *requires* an orphanage donation...warning bells ought to go off. If the country puts a cap on foreign fees and the agency's foreign fees grossly exceed the cap on foreign fees, ditto. If agencies aren't allows to umbrella under the licensing of other agencies, but are doing so, ditto.)

--File complaints with authorities (in both the sending and receiving countries)where agencies clearly do not follow applicable rules. If you don't know with whom to file complaints, ask on IAT or get in touch with Ethica.

--After complaining to authorities, note the authorities' response or lack ofresponse and the effect that it has on agencies changing their practices. This is instructive for understanding enforcement or the lack thereof. All the rules in the book do no good if they are not enforced.

--Where there is a lack of will for enforcement, take your concerns to the next level above the negligent enforcers or think through what reforms or actions might lead to enforcement being taken seriously.

--If an agency retaliates against you for complaining about them, report their retaliation to the authorities to which you complained.

--Share with PAP's the history of corruption within a specific country so that they can make wise choices. No one should be allowed to wander unaware into a situation where there have been serious past allegations of or convictions for adoption corruption or fraud

Corruption Item 3: Understand Cultural Contexts

3) Do ongoing research to understand the cultural/economic/political, etc.context in which adoption from these countries takes place.

--Work to understand the role of orphanages within these specific cultures. Doorphanages function as boarding schools for the poor, as temporary social safetynets for children whose families intend to continue to raise them, asrepositories for abandoned children, as homes for true orphans, or ????? Do notassume that orphanages are the same kinds of institutions in every culture.

--Build a broad understanding of the reasons why children are likely to be relinquished for adoption in these countries by beginning to understand the country's' culture, politics, economics, etc. especially as they relate topoverty, unwed pregnancy, the roles of women, class & family structure, customs related to childbearing & raising etc., etc. etc.

--Understand what part adoption--domestic and international--plays for orphanages. What percentage of children are available for adoption? What percentage is placed domestically? What percentage of children are sent abroad?What is the incentive for sending children abroad? How does the fact that children are being sent abroad affect domestic adoption within the sending country?

--Examine whether the true need for international placement of children has changed over time.

--Find out all you can about how real orphanages function for children

--not just orphanages that place children internationally, but other orphanages. What percentage of orphanages in these countries place children internationally? What is their reputation as compared to other orphanages?

--Monitor news related to these concerns

--Share what you learn with others

Corruption Item 2: Learn Laws of a Few Countries

2) Research the adoption related laws and regulations of a few sending countries

--No one knows everything about every country, so try to understand a couple ofcountries well.

--If you KNOW the rules, you will be able to recognize when they are beingfollowed or broken

--Start with the country from which you adopted and pick one (or two) othercountries, at least one of which is rumored to have "problems"

--Understand the "ethical issues" and problems related to adoption in thosecountries

--Research the history of adoption and its ethical issues (scandals, problems,etc) in the countries that you have chosen

--Specifically monitor news alerts related to "your countries."

--Discuss with others and share what you learn.

Corruption Item 1: Become Educated About IA

1) Become educated about what's going on in IA in general

--Subscribe to news alerts. Share them.

--As you read them, look to learn about the problems in individualcountries, but also about the "big picture"—the patterns that repeatover and over again from country to country.

--Form your own hypotheses, think through where you think theproblems lie and what the solutions might be, discuss your ideas withothers, network, decide where you can help, and then apply your ownunique talents to being a part of the solution.

--Track trends and events with respect to corruption and illegality'simpact on adoption. History often repeats itself.

--Read David Smolin's articles on adoption corruption at: http://works.bepress.com/david_smolin/

--Watch the US Federal Special Agent Richard Cross's presentation,What Really Happened in Cambodia: http://cumberland.samford.edu/cumberland_programs.asp?ID=630

--Discuss with others. Right now discussions about adoption ethicsare almost taboo. When conversations about adoption ethics becomemore common-place, improvements in adoption practice & ethics aresure to follow.

What To Do About Adoption Corruption (Summary)

1) Become educated about what’s going on in IA in general.
2) Research the adoption related laws and regulations of a few sending countries.
3) Do ongoing research to understand the cultural/economic/political, etc. context in the few sending countries you’ve selected.
4) Keep tabs on whether your agency and the other adoption agencies practicing in the countries you have chosen, are abiding by the rules.
5) Be aware of the role that foreign fees and foreign orphanage donations play in incentivizing the corrupt sourcing of children for adoption.
6) Hold non-profits and others accountable for how money is spent in the sending countries.
7) Encourage agencies to carefully vet and then hold their own foreign partners responsible for their actions.
8) Join online groups like Adoption_Agency_Research and learn and participate.
9) Find ways to make a difference in terms of the root causes of the “need” for adoption.
10) Educate yourself on the adoption related laws and regulations of your own country.
11) Research the adoption practices of other receiving countries as a way of understanding your own country’s practices. In what ways do other receiving countries “do it better” or worse?
12) Educate yourself on the international documents that are applicable to international adoption.
13) During adoption crises, avoid the temptation to work against investigations, enforcement, and reforms.
14) Work to mature the way adoption is understood in our society
15) Speak up.
16) Speak to PAP’s formally and informally to help them understand adoption from other perspectives, to help them understand adoption corruption, and to help them find ethical agencies.
17) Tell and encourage others to tell the bad stories. Read the bad stories.
18) Pool your resources and use your unique talents.
19) Work for legislative and executive remedies.